Quality Management term

[Quality Management term] what is ISO?

ISO (the International Organization forStandardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO memberbodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried outthrough ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject forwhich a technical committee has been established has the right to berepresented on that committee. International organizations, governmental andnon-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISOcollaborates closely with the International Electro technical Commission (IEC)on all matters of electro technical standardization.

[Quality Management term] what is inspection?

Activity such as measuring, examining, testing orgauging one or more characteristics of a product or service, and comparing theresults with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity isachieved for each characteristic

[Quality Management term] what is original inspection?

First inspection of a lot according to the provisions of this part of ISO 2859.NOTE This is to be distinguished from the inspection of a lot which has been resubmitted after previous non-acceptance.

[Quality Management term] what is inspection by attributes?

Inspection whereby either the item is classified simply as conforming or nonconforming with respect to a specified requirement or set of specified requirements, or the number of nonconformities in the item is counted.NOTE Inspection by attributes includes inspection for conformity of items as well as inspection for number of nonconformities per hundred items.

[Quality Management term]what is item?

Item that which can be individually described andconsidered,EXAMPLES:

a physical item;   a defined quantity of material;  a service, an activity or a process;   an organization or a person; or some combination there of.

[Quality Management term] what is nonconformity?

Non-fulfilment of a specified requirement:

NOTE 1 In some situations specified requirementscoincide with customer usage requirements (see defect, 3.1.6). In other Situations they may not coincide, being either moreor less stringent, or the exact relationship between the two is not fully known or understood.

NOTE 2 Nonconformity will generally be classifiedaccording to its degree of seriousness such as:Class A: those nonconformities of a type consideredto be of the highest concern; in acceptance sampling such types of nonconformities will be assigned a very smallacceptance quality limit value;Class B: those nonconformities of a type consideredto have the next lower degree of concern; therefore, these can be assigned a larger acceptance quality limit valuethan those in class A and smaller than in class C, if a third class exists,etc.

NOTE 3 Adding characteristics and classes ofnonconformities will generally affect the overall probability of acceptance of the product.

NOTE 4 The number of classes, the assignment into aclass, and the choice of acceptance quality limit for each class,should be appropriate to the quality requirementsof the specific situation.

[Quality Management term] what is defect?

Non-fulfillment of an intended usage requirement
NOTE 1 The term "defect" is appropriate for use when a quality characteristic of a product or service is evaluated in terms of usage (as contrasted to conformance to specifications).
NOTE 2 Since the term "defect" now has definite meaning within the law, it should not be used as a general term.

[Quality Management term] what is nonconforming item?
Item with one or more nonconformities

NOTE Nonconforming items will generally be classified by their degree of seriousness such as:

Class A: an item which contains one or more nonconformities of class A and may also contain nonconformities of class B and/or class C, etc.;
Class B: an item which contains one or more nonconformities of class B and may also contain nonconformities of class C,etc. but contains no nonconformity of class A.

[Quality Management term] what is percent nonconforming?
(In A sample) one hundred times the number of nonconforming items in the sample divided by the sample size, via: (d/n)100 where
d: is the number of nonconforming items in the sample;
n: is the sample size

[Quality Management term] what is responsible authority?
Concept used to maintain the neutrality of this part of ISO 2859 (primarily for specification purposes), irrespective of Whether it is being invoked or applied by the first, second or third party
NOTE 1 the responsible authority may be:
a) The quality department within a supplier's organization (first party);
b) The purchaser or procurement organization (second party);
c) An independent verification or certification authority (third party);
d) any of a), b) or c), differing according to function (see Note 2) as described in a written agreement between two of the parties, for example a document between supplier and purchaser.

[Quality Management term] what is lot?
Definite amount of some product, material or service, collected together
NOTE An inspection lot may consist of several batches or parts of batches.

[Quality Management term] what is lot size?
Number of items in a lot

[Quality Management term] what is sample?
Set of one or more items taken from a lot and intended to provide information on the lot.

[Quality Management term] what is sampling plan?
Combination of sample size(s) to be used and associated lot acceptability criteria
NOTE 1 A single sampling plan is a combination of sample size and acceptance and rejection numbers.
A double sampling plan is a combination of two sample sizes and acceptance and rejection numbers for the first sample and for the combined sample.
NOTE 2 A sampling plan does not contain the rules on how to draw the sample.

[Quality Management term] what is normal inspection?
Use of a sampling plan with an acceptance criterion that has been devised to secure the producer a high probability of acceptance when the process average of the lot is better than the acceptance quality limit
NOTE: Normal inspection is used when there is no reason to suspect that the process average (3.1.25) differs from an
acceptable level.

[Quality Management term] what is tightened inspection?
Use of a sampling plan with an acceptance criterion that is tighter than that for the corresponding plan for
normal inspection
NOTE: Tightened inspection is invoked when the inspection results of a predetermined number of consecutive lots indicate that the process average might be poorer than the AQL

[Quality Management term] what is sampling scheme?

Combination of sampling plans with rules for changing from one plan to another


[Quality Management term] what is sampling system?

Collection of sampling plans, or of sampling schemes, each with its own rules for changing plans, together with sampling procedures including criteria by which appropriate plans or schemes may be chosen


NOTE this part of ISO 2859 is a sampling system indexed by lot-size ranges, inspection levels and AQLs. A sampling

system for LQ plans is given in ISO 2859-2.


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