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Ixesha lolawulo lomgangatho

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Igama lolawulo lomgangatho] yintoni i-ISO?

I-ISO (Umbutho Wezizwe Ngezizwe weStandardization) ngumanyano wehlabathi jikelele wemigangatho yelizwe (i-ISO amalungu ebhlodi). Umsebenzi wokulungiselela iMigangatho yeHlabathi kuqhele ukwenziwa ukuqhutywa kweekomiti zobugcisa ze-ISO. Ilungu ngalinye lombutho elinomdla kwisifundo esekwe ikomiti yezobugcisa inelungelo lokumelwa kule komiti. Imibutho yezizwe ngezizwe, urhulumente we-andron-urhulumente, ngokunxibelelana ne-ISO, nabo bathabatha inxaxheba emsebenzini. I-ISOcollabor isebenza ngokusondeleyo neKhomishini yezobuchwephesha ye-Electro yeHlabathi (IEC) kuyo yonke imibandela yokumiselwa kobugcisa.

Indawo yoLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni  uvavanyo?

Umsebenzi onjengokuvavanya, ukuvavanya, ukuvavanya ukuphinda wenze uphawu olunye okanye ezingakumbi zemveliso okanye inkonzo, kunye nokuthelekisa ezo zinto zibhalwayo kunye neemfuno ezichaziweyo ukuze kufumaneke ukuba ukungqinelana kuyahambelana na nophawu ngalunye.

Indawo yoLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni  lwantlandlolo?

Ukuhlolwa kokuqala kwenani ngokokubonelelwa kwale nxalenye ye-ISO 2859.NOTE Oku kuya kwahlulahlula kuhlolo lwezinto ezininzi ezithe zaphinda zathunyelwa emva kokungamkelwa ngaphambili.

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] luhlola ntoni uphawu?

Uvavanyo apho into leyo ichongwe njengokuhambelana okanye ukungacwangcisi into ngokubhekisele kwimfuno ethile okanye iseti yeemfuno ezithile, okanye inani lokungalungelelani kwinto leyo libaliwe. Uvavanyo lweempawu lubandakanya ukuhlolwa kokungqinelwa kwezinto kunye nokuhlolwa Inani lezinto ezingenakuguqulwa kwikhulu lezinto.

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni  into?

Into enokuchazwa ngokukodwa kwaye ithathelwe ingqalelo, IIMVIZO:

into yomzimba; ubungakanani obuchaziweyo bemathiriyeli; inkonzo, umsebenzi, okanye inkqubo; umbutho okanye umntu; okanye indibaniselwano apho.

Indawo yoLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni  ukungahambelani?

Ukungafezeki kwemfuno ethile:

QAPHELA 1  Kwezinye iimeko iimfuno ezithile zokuhambelana kunye neemfuno zokusetyenziswa kwabathengi (jonga isiphene, 3.1.6). Kwezinye iimeko zinokungahambelani, nokuba zikho ngakumbi okanye zinolwalamano oluchanekileyo phakathi kwezi zimbini azaziwa ngokupheleleyo okanye aziqondwa.

QAPHELA 2  Ukungangqinelani kuya kubekwa ngokuthe ngqo kubungakanani bento enzulu njengoku: Udidi A: olo lokungangqinelaniyo lohlobo oluthathwa njengeyona nto iphambili ekuxhalabiseni; kwisampulu zokwamkela iindidi ezinjalo zokungangqinelani ziya kunikwa ixabiso elincinci kakhulu lexabiso elamkelekileyo lokufumana ixabiso: Udidi B: ezo zingenakuguqulwa zodidi oluthathelwa ingqalelo zinenqanaba elilandelayo lokuxhalaba; ke ngoko, ezi zinokunikwa umda wokuxabiseka komgangatho wokwamkela inani elikhulu kuneleklasi A kwaye elincinci kuneklasi C, ukuba kudidi lwesithathu, njl.

QAPHELA 3  Ukongezwa kweempawu kunye neeklasi zeempawu zempazamo ziya kuchaphazela ngokubanzi ukwamkelwa kwemveliso.

QAPHELA 4  Inani leeklasi, isabelo kwi-aclass, kunye nokukhethwa komda wokumkelwa komgangatho kwiklasi nganye, kufanelekile ukuba kwinqanaba elifanelekileyo kwimodi ethile.

Igama lolawulo lomgangatho] yintoni isiphene?

Ukungafezeki komgaqo wokusetyenziswa osetyenzisiweyo
QAPHELA 1 Igama elithi "isiphene" lifanelekile ukusetyenziswa xa uphawu lomgangatho wemveliso okanye lwenkonzo luvavanywa ngokwemigaqo yosetyenziso (xa kuthelekiswa nokuhambelana neenkcazo).
QAPHELA 2 Njengokuba igama elithi "isiphene" ngoku linentsingiselo echanekileyo ngaphakathi komthetho, akufuneki ukuba lisetyenziswe njengegama ngokubanzi.

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni engahambelaniyo nomxholo?
Into kunye nokungangqinelani

QAPHELA Izinto ezingahambelaniyo nezinto ziya kuhlelwa ngokwamanqanaba ezinto ezinzulu njengoku:

Iklasi A:  into equlathe enye okanye ezingaphaya kokungalunganga zeklasi A kwaye inokuqulatha ukungangqinelani kweklasi B kunye / okanye iklasi C, njl .;
Class B: an item which contains one or more nonconformities of class B and may also contain nonconformities of class C,etc. but contains no nonconformity of class A.

Ixesha lolawulo lomgangatho] yintoni ipesenti yokungalingani?
(Kwisampulu) liphindwe kalikhulu inani lezinto ezingenakutshintsha kwisampula eyahlulelwe ubungakanani besampula, nge: (d / n) 100 apho 
d: linani lezinto ezingenakuphikisana kwisampulu;
n: ubungakanani besampulu

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] ligunya lini elixanduva?
Ingqondo esetyenziselwa ukugcina ukungathathi cala kwale nxalenye ye-ISO 2859 (ubukhulu becala ngeenjongo ezizodwa), kungajongwanga ukuba iyabizwa okanye isetyenziswe ngumntu wokuqala, owesibini okanye owesithathu
QAPHELA igunya
a) isebe esemgangathweni ngaphakathi umbutho wabathengisi (iqela lokuqala);
b) Umthengi okanye umbutho wentengo (iqela lesibini);
c) Isiqinisekiso esizimeleyo okanye igunya lesitifiketi (umntu wesithathu);
d) nayiphi na (a), b) okanye c) eyahlukileyo ngokwendlela yokusebenza (jonga iNqaku 2) njengoko kuchaziwe kwisivumelwano esibhaliweyo phakathi kwamaqela amabini, umzekelo uxwebhu phakathi komxhasi kunye nomthengi.

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni isininzi?
Inani elingapheliyo lemveliso, izinto okanye inkonzo, eqokelelwe ndawonye
QAPHELA Uvavanyo oluninzi lunokubandakanya iibatch ezininzi okanye iinxalenye zeebatch.

Ixesha lokulawulwa komgangatho] ubungakanani obuninzi?
Inani lezinto kakhulu

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni isampulu?
enye okanye ezingaphezulu ezithathwe kuninzi kwaye kujongwe ukubonelela ngolwazi ngeqashiso.

Igama
lolawulo
zokuziphatha zokwamkelwa
Isicwangciso sesampulu kabini kukudityaniswa kweesampulu ezimbini ezikhulu kunye nokwamkelwa kunye nenombolo yokwala isampulu yokuqala kunye nesampulu edibeneyo.
QAPHELA 2 Isicwangciso sesampulu asinayo imigaqo yendlela yokwenza isampulu.

Indawo yoLawulo lweMigangatho] luvavanyo oluqhelekileyo?
Ukusetyenziswa kwesicwangciso sesampulu kunye nenqobo yokwamkelwa eyenzelwe ukukhusela umvelisi amathuba aphezulu okwamkeleka xa umndilili wenkqubo ulunge ngakumbi kunomda womgangatho wokwamkelwa
QAPHELA: Uvavanyo oluqhelekileyo lusetyenziswa xa kungekho sizathu sokukrokrela ukuba i-avareji yenkqubo (3.1.25) yahlukile kwinqanaba
elamkelekileyo.

Isigama soLawulo lweMigangatho] yintoni eqinisekisiweyo yovavanyo?
Ukusetyenziswa kwesicwangciso
oluqhelekileyo 
QAPHELA: Uvavanyo olujongiweyo luyabanjwa xa iziphumo zokuhlola zenani eliqingqiweyo lamanani amiselweyo alandelelanayo zibonisa ukuba umndilili wenkqubo unokungabi mgangathweni kune-AQL

Ixesha lolawulo lomgangatho] Yintoni inkqubo yesampulu?

Ukudibana kwezicwangciso zesampulu kunye nemithetho yokutshintsha ukusuka kwisicwangciso ukuya kwesinye

Igama lolawulo lomgangatho] Yintoni inkqubo yesampulu?

Ukuqokelelwa kwezicwangciso zesampulu, okanye izikim zeesampulu, nganye inemithetho yayo yokutshintsha iiplani, kunye neenkqubo zokubonelela ngesampuli kubandakanya neendlela ezinokuthi zikhethwe izicwangciso okanye izikimu ezifanelekileyo.

QAPHELA le nxalenye ye-ISO 2859 yinkqubo yesampulu ebhalwe uluhlu lwamaxabiso obukhulu, amanqanaba okuhlola kunye nee-AQL. Isampulu

Inkqubo yezicwangciso ze-LQ inikezwe kwi-ISO 2859-2.